The catalog pg_attrdef stores column default values. The main information about columns is stored in pg_attribute (see below). Only columns that explicitly specify a default value (when the table is created or the column is added) will have an entry here.
Tabella 45.6. pg_attrdef Columns
The adsrc field is historical, and is best not used, because it does not track outside changes that might affect the representation of the default value. Reverse-compiling the adbin field (with pg_get_expr for example) is a better way to display the default value.